From In-Fisherman: "It's long been known that injured minnows release a chemical alarm substance, called Schreckstoff, that warns school-mates of danger. Biologists also have discovered that minnow odors emanating from fish that eat them also warn other minnows of the predator's presence. Recent studies have shown that fathead minnows possess even higher levels of olfactory discrimination. Researchers showed that minnows can gauge the size of a pike by its odor. Interestingly, minnows responded more vigorously to the odor of a small pike than a larger one, presumably because small pike are more likely to eat minnows than larger ones. Further research at the University of Saskatchewan indicated that by assessing odors, fathead minnows can determine how far away a muskie or pike is, the size of the predator, and how many esox are in the vicinity. These authors suspect that most fish probably have the ability to detect potential predators and can gauge their threat level. If so, pike and muskie anglers should think about washing or changing baits after a catch. This will ensure the lure does not carry the "predatorial" scent." Thought it was interesting and others might like it.